Goethe in der Rhön

Im Sep­tem­ber des Jah­res 1780 be­such­te Jo­hann Wolf­gang von Goe­the, die Rhön im obe­ren Fel­da­tal erst­mals. Der Her­zog von Sach­sen-Wei­mar-Ei­se­nach, Carl-Au­gust (1757 bis 1828) in­spi­zier­te da­mals sei­nen Be­sitz, der nicht nur in die thü­rin­gi­sche Rhön, son­dern auch bis nach Ost­heim in Bay­ern reich­te. Goe­the reis­te im Ge­fol­ge des Her­zogs. Der drei­und­drei­ßig­jäh­ri­ge Dich­ter war da­mals als Ge­hei­mer Rat Mit­glied der obers­ten Re­gie­rungs­be­hör­de des Lan­des und lei­te­te au­ßer­dem die Kriegs­kom­mis­si­on, die We­ge­kom­mis­si­on und die Berg­werks­di­rek­ti­on.

Wäh­rend der da­ma­li­gen Rei­se soll­te sich Goe­the um die Geo­lo­gie des Lan­des, den An­la­gen zur Wie­sen­be­wäs­se­rung und um Ver­hand­lun­gen  mit der her­zog­li­chen Re­gie­rung in Mei­nin­gen küm­mern. Her­zog Karl von Sach­sen-Mei­ni­gen war ein Vet­ter von Goe­thes Dienst­herrn.

Zu Pfer­de star­te­te die Rei­se­ge­sell­schaft in Wei­mar und kam über Il­menau, Stüt­zer­bach, Schmal­kal­den, Zill­bach, Kal­ten­n­ord­heim, Kal­tens­und­heim und Ost­heim nach Mei­nin­gen. In der Rhön an­ge­kom­men, schrieb Goe­the fast täg­lich Brie­fe an die von ihm ver­ehr­te Char­lot­te von Stein. Ein aus­führ­li­ches Ge­spräch führ­te er mit dem Eng­län­der Ge­or­ge Bat­ty, der im Ei­se­nach­er Amt als Land­kom­mis­sar ar­bei­te­te und die Plä­ne für die Be­wäs­se­rungs­an­la­gen in Mel­pers und Ost­heim ent­wor­fen hat­te. Ne­ben den Holz­rech­ten im Zill­ba­cher Forst, muss­te sich Goe­the mit vie­len po­li­ti­schen Que­re­len be­schäf­ti­gen.

Der Geo­lo­ge und Mi­ne­ra­lo­ge kam na­tür­lich nicht um­hin, sich mit den rei­chen Fund­stät­ten von Ba­salt, so­wie den Ver­stei­ne­run­gen in dem Kalk­ge­stein der Rhö­ner Ber­ge zu be­fas­sen. In Goe­thes Schrif­ten zur Geo­lo­gie und Mi­ne­ra­lo­gie fin­det man die No­tiz „Sa­men von Kal­ten­n­ord­heim auf­zu­su­chen“. In den Kal­ten­n­ord­hei­mer Braun­koh­le­schich­ten wa­ren un­ter an­de­rem Sa­men ei­nes Frosch­biss­ge­wäch­ses, der Krebs­sche­re ge­fun­den wor­den. Die Pflan­ze er­hielt den la­tei­ni­schen Na­men „Stra­tio­tes Kal­ten­n­ord­hei­men­sis“. 1782  wa­ren die Kal­ten­n­ord­hei­mer Koh­le­gru­ben von Sach­sen-Wei­mar ge­kauft wor­den.

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